Category Archives: Basics

Tutorials + Sound Synthesis

Clavia Nord Modular G2 – für alle die ihn gar nicht kennen (SynMag = Synthesizer-Magazin 12) und weitere Synth-Videorundgänge

Das Heft ist nicht mehr ganz neu, aber die Videos helfen vielleicht Interessierten sich zurecht zu finden

Audio Demo und Info zum Clavia Nord Modular G2, g 2x , G2engine (built 2004) – ModularSynthesizer
Sony Vaio P Editor für G2 Sony Vaio P Editor for G2 synthesizer

zu: Ausgaben 12, 13, 15Synthesizer-Magazin

Restausgaben nur noch bei mir direkt (habe nur noch sehr wenige) oder als PDF im SynMag Shop

mehr und tiefer – gibt es auf dieser Lern DVD Hands on Synthsound 1 HANDS ON Synthsound (DVD)
ein paar Grundlagen ohne Geld

und …
weitere Synthesizer-Rundgänge sind hochgeladen ..

• Numerology2 Teil1 Einleitung, 4 Teile

• elektron monomachine – INTRO Teil A, 4.5 Teile (ja!)

• FutureRetro XS – Teil 1 (Videorundgang) , 3 Teile

• Analogue Solutions Leipzig – Teil 1 Rundgang , 2 Teile

• Arturia Origin Synthesizer Rundgang

die aktuelle Ausgabe ist natürlich diese hier:

Keine ungelesenen Beiträge-> Synthesizer-Magazin

Dictionary – Lexikon

Menu @ Synth Wiki:
English & German content – Synth Dictionary. Deutscher und Englischer Inhalt – Synthesizer Wörterbuch

– Kleine Info für absolute Synthesizer-Einsteiger, bevor man die Synthese-Grundlagen gelesen hat..

Tricks & Tutorials

As the name says – from how to make a bass sound with FM to modular stuff

wie der Name sagt: Tricks aller Art vom Bass mit FM Synthese mit Ableton Live Operator bis …

Sound Synthesis

Lots of synth & synthesis terms

Klangsynthese und Begriffe zum Nachschlagen


All types of Sequencers listed here.

Was gibt es alles für Sequenzer heute und gestern?


guess what?

na? was wohl?


Alternative Controller – !!


Find the Happy Knobbing Modular Synth Meeting, Bluesynths and other Meetings here.

Hier gibts Info, Links und Videos zu allen bekannten Synthesizer-Treffen.


Alles über Modularsynthesizer, Gate und CV.


Misc. Lists like “Fast Envelope Synthesizer” etc.

Hier gibt es spezielle Liste wie etwas “Welche Synthesizer haben schnelle LFOs”?


Basics & Tutorials – Sound Synthesis

basics / tutorials / synthesis..


Sound Synthesis Types

  • additive synthesis
  • physical modeling
  • FM frequency modulation
  • wavetable
  • subtraktive synthesis (most common!!)
  • sampler / sampling (“rompler”) – PCM = Pulse Code Modulation
  • vector
  • karplus strong
  • vocoder / vocoding (analysis & synthesis)
  • waveshaping
  • resynthesis
  • Phase Distortion (phase modulation)
  • wavesequencing (wavestation)
  • granular / graintable / timeslice + variphrase
  • neuronal network / neuron

find out about these here Sound_Synthesis



VCO / Oscillator: controlled by a analogue voltage (normally by keyboard, or other modulators like LFOs etc..) generates Tones with lots of high frequencies (high harmonics!)

DCOs: the same, but digitally controlled: advantage: better stability. this does NOT mean the oscs are completely digitally genereated but controlled!! so a DCO can sound “analogue”.



find audio demos below..
noise waveform spectrumNOISE WAVEFORM
very rich overtones! means: any frequency/overtone is there..

sinus (sine) waveform spectrumSINE WAVE
has no more than just one basic tone, no overtones – no chance to filter anything out here!!

square (rectangular) waveform spectrumSQUARE WAVE / RECTANGULAR / PULSE
has a rich spectrum but only odd overtones!
this is a symmetric pulsewidth!.. if you CHANGE THE PULSEWIDTH you get more overtones in the spectrum, the sound is “thinner” then.. lots of synthesizers allow to change this pulse width by modulation of an LFO.. make the sound much thicker/fattens up the sound..
pulse waveform spectrumthis is also “square wave”, but only a short impulse (symmetry of – say 2:98).. by going back to 50:50 there will be some “notches” into the spectrum!!.. see above (square)

sawtooth (saw) waveform spectrumSAWTOOTH
has a very rich spectrum including odd and even upper harmonic overtones – some synthesizer like the oberheim matrix 6 or OB-1 allows to seemlessly move the “symmetry” of the sawtooth to triangle wave – this will reduce the overtones as you can see here (so this is some “sort of a LPF” effect (low pass filter):

triangular (triangle) waveform spectrumTRIANGLE
has some more overtones, but not that much..

rounded square waveform spectrumROUNDED SQUARE
not very common, just to show you – the more close you come to sine wave, the less overtones you get..



FILTER VCF: this device can subtract a range of frequencies from the VCO. the most usual are:

LPF – low pass filter – filters out higher frequencies above a certain cutoff frequency with a certain slope (measured in dB or poles): 1 pole are 6dB/Oct.. 2 poles 12dB/Octav, etc..
the usual slope is 24 and 12 dB per Octave. like in the moog minimoog.

HPF – high pass filter – filters out low frequencies below the cutoff.

BPF – band pass filter – this is a combination of LPF and HPF: so it cuts upper and lower frequencies, so whats left is a small “band” in between.

BRF/notch – the opposite of BPF, the band reject filter or so called notch – only filters out a small band, so it is exactly the opposite of a BPF.

APF = all pass filter – well is not a filter but a phase shifting device. all filters will ALSO phase shift the signal!!! so this is for only phaseshifting without filtering: – often used in physical modelling systems.. but rarely used in any kind of other synthesizers..

comb filter / phaser: the comb filter is a special form of filter: it has several notches at a certain distance, that what it make it look like a “comb”.
this can be done by a delay with feedback at a quite small delay time as found on the waldorf Q series, Creamware pulsar or korg prophecy and korg z1.


VCA – amplifier – making it louder or attenuate signals by a control voltage


LFO – low frequency oscillator – this is the same as an oscillator (VCO or DCO), to create vibrato and the like. vibrato is very simple: connect an LFO to a VCO or DCO to control it’s pitch! thats it!

ENVELOPE generator – this is the contour of a sound. if you want to shape a soundi n it’s dynamic change (time is the key here!!):
example: hammond organ – when oyu press a key it sounds. when you release it, it immediately stops sounding.
piano with sustain: you press a key and release it: it still sounds..

the most usual form of envelope generator found in synthesizers is ADSR.

key on here (“taste ein” in the picture below)…
A = Attack (rate)
= Decay (rate)
S = Sustain (level) —> after that / while that level is being kept: key off. (“taste aus” on the picture)
R = Release (rate)

means: press the key, now the sound get louder with ATTACK time to maximum level. after that it goes back to the level set in SUSTAIN with time DECAY. as long as you hold the key, the level will now keeps SUSTAIN level until you release the key. if oyu do that the audio signal will go back to silence with RELEASE time.
got it?
imagine two of them controlling the filter (VCF) and amplifier (VCA)!
so you got dynamical control over the “contour” and “brilliance” of the sound and determin if it is percussive or long sustaining or like a piano or like an organ..

set the time and live for each stage and loop the segments it is the highest level of controlling a sound..
this one is taken from the Waldorf Microwave XT..


there are also some more interesting things in the OSCILLATOR section:


What can be done with 2 Oscillators?

Ringmodulation between 2 Oscilllators: the result is a quite “mtetallic” sound when set to non equal frequencies.. (so better do not only try an interval of 1 octave or any “pure” interval)..what it does? it outputs the sum and difference between the 2 OSCs.. so this is good for “inharmonic and metallic spectra…

simple versions sometimes use XOR technique for rectangular waves!! It produces a waveshape that contains the sum of as well as the difference between the two original waveshapes – XOR mean logically: if any of 2 inputs are true the result is also true but NOT if both signals are true!! (thats the “exlusive”!)..

FM: the FM is easy to understand: one Oscillator modulates another! thats all! but at audio speed, this generates interesting spectra. makes rhodes and bellish sounds very easy!
ppl say it’s hard to programme, but it isn’t take your dx7 (or something like fmheaven or fm7 software etc..) and lock yourself in a room for 3 days and you got it!!.. the Osc. that controls the frequency of another Osc. is called modulator.

Crossmodulation crossmod: is not “just FM” but modulation of two audio OSCillators (modding each other), a common tech. to create “dirt”.. the formula (german: kreuzmodulation a special form of intermodulation) is here

Crossmodulation, Intermodulation:
non linear distortion of one or multiple signals (2 in this case). they start oscillating that do not “belong” to the original oscillation . the difference and the sum. signals
but not really a ringmod but to create dirt and high harmonics. – so it’s not just fm.

Crossmodulation is a XOR combination of the square waveshapes of Oscillators 2 and 3:
Crossmodulation – It produces a waveshape that contains the sum of as well as the difference between the two original waveshapes – XOR mean logically: if any of 2 inputs are true the result is also true but NOT if both signals are true!! (thats the “exlusive”!)..


Additive Synthesis

here you don’t have filters or osc’s with lots of high frequencies. only sine waves. BUT you got lots of oscillators and envelope generators here!
a SINE WAVE is the one that has NO higher frequencies. it’s ONLY ONE FREQUENCY. ONE PITCH. no overtones, so you can not filter it! but you can built a sound using a multitude of those simple oscillators and envelope generators EACH!
this gives you a lot of influence as seen on the kawai K5000 series (64 and 128 OSCs!! and more complex env’s!)
don’t forget: this is the theory, there are lots of frequencies to make a real sound. most synthesizers only got their osc frequencies on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.. harmonics, so to make “inharmonic” sounds it could be of help to tune some oscs to other frequencies in between.. but it’s only a question of the hardware/software ;)

physical modeling
models a natural accoustic instrument. the basics are comb filters and delay lines with feedbacks , filters (also all pass filters to only shift the phase) to really model the nature of an accoustic instrument. strings, a tube etc.. it gets interesting if you try to extend the “models” paramters for “unreal” instruments.. the so called VA (virtual analogue) synthesizers also do “model” the old analogue pitch drift and nature of an analogue synthesizer, but this is NOT pm. it’s VA ;) just another name ;)

sampling – this uses digitally recorded “samples” (=audio recording) as oscillator. some recent samplers do not only play it faster or slower (micky mouse effect!) but correct the real pitch by techniques like FFT (fast fourier transformation), granular synthesis, resynthesis.. like the vp9000, native instruments “kontakt” etc..

VECTOR SYNTHESIS (prophet vs, wavestation) and WAVETABLE synthesis (waldorf and ppg (micro)wave series)
Vector means: you got 4 OSCs and each of them plays some sample or spectrum..
Now you can “walk” through the 4 OSCs with the stick.. And “record” your “journey”..

That the basic principle.. The WS also can play a “sequence” of samples/waves.. This is sort of having a list that will play any ROM samples you want ..

Wavetables (wavetable synthesis by PPG / Waldorf) are different: you have 60 waves and “walk” through it using an envelope generator with 8 “steps”.. So you got lots of control..
You got 2 of those “walkers”..
And you can assign any other mod source to the wavetable that is being “walked” through..

like on korg oasys or wavestation or yamaha tg33 / sy 35 22 there are 4 OSCillators that are on the A,b,C or D site of a joystick controller, the envelope to control this movement can be recorded or editied and result in a “crossfading” of 4 very different (or what you like to) sounds, samples or spectrum ..
vector synthesis

a number of fixed oscillators which have their own envelope are used. they are all sine waves because they need to sound on THEIR specifiy CERTAIN frequency (relative to the basic tone), ANY sound can be re-contructed out of sine waves. they represent the harmonics, but you need 64 like on the kawai k5000 or even more (add 6 of 64 OSCs with ENVelopes in the K5000) you can also detune the OSCs frequencies.. but still this will not allow ANY sound…
additive synthesis

the idea here is one sine wave oscillator modulated the frequency of another oscillator, mostly called operator because yamaha used this term for the DX , TG and Fs1R series
there are 2 to 8 OP Systems “commonly” offered.. modulars could handle more.. like the G2 or other modular synthesizers..

find a complete “how to make a bass with FM” tutorial here / Tutorial für FM Bass Sounds hier..

how a 6 OP Algorithm setup could be – its how you modulate which oscillator.. a self modded one is called feedback OSC to create noise.. :
FM Synthesis Algorithms

more to come.. questions? please ask in the forum!!

synthesizer magazines:
(remember those made of PAPER?)

also: US mag keyboard (not too deep)..
do you know more? let me know (url?) any language..
there is a cool dutch one.. doon’t remember the name?..

some other rescources for browsing..old manuals etc.. goood to learn how synths work!

Synthesizer Basics (BOOK)

Interesting Shockwave presentation:

Some interesting Moog Modular stuff:

The Beginner’s Synthesizer FAQ:

also: Wizoo books..

mini glossary / in depth info:

General Synthesizer Information (Synthesizer Basics, Primers, knowledge, etc.)
eg.: hear how a ringmodulator sound like.., filters? what is a wavetable sound? synth mags: go here

I don’t know much about how Soft-sync works but it does seem to change tone depending on how the phase of the VCO waveforms are lined up. If I press it on, and off about ten times, you here a different tone at each of the 1 tries. most of them similar, but a few of em will be heavily phase cancelled and tiny. Is this how it works?


I have a saw on VCO1, and a square wave on VCO2, one octave down

Generally the way synch works when VCO2 is synched to VCO1, is that every time the VCO1 waveform has a positive-going zero crossing (i.e. begins its cycle), the waveform of VCO2 is reset to the beginning of ITS cycle. That’s hard synch.  With soft synch, the VCO2 waveform does NOT reset for every time VCO1 begins its cycle.  It only resets if it is near the end of its cycle, and about to reset anyway.

I’m not sure if that’s correct; I believe that any sort of synch relies on the rising edge of the “master” waveform to reset the phase of the “slave”. In Soft Synch, the slave oscillator can be caused to completely lock in phase
with the master if their tuning relationships are consonant (octaves, fifths, etc.) It is often neccessary to tune the slave oscillator flat several cents in order to achieve a lock. Check “70’s Lead” for a soft-sync’d sound and check the tuning of osc 2. Note that the timbre of a soft-synch’d oscillator changes a bit, even if the master and slave are at the same frequency. In hard sync, the slave becomes a generator of harmonics as it attempts to both freerun and also reset to the rising edge of the master’s waveform cycle.

Not all voices will accurately soft sync due to the compromise between the sensitivity requirements of the circuit and the differences in tone which occur. It is an effect which is great for organ sounds (pipe and otherwise) and for firmer bass sounds as well. I’ve found that if the slave is tuned -below- the master, it will lock a bit better (and IIRC, it’s tone is a bit cleaner.

If a slave is exactly twice the frequency of the master, it will produce two complete wavecycles in the exact period of the master’s one, with the rising and falling edges being the same for both at the ends. This is useful when creating complex single-cycle waveforms for looping in small memory spaces in ROMplers (means: samples are use that are in the ROM/the fixed memory of the synth). Octloc (sp) in the QS synths was from Emerson’s Moog Modular, with three 921bs in soft sync, each an octave higher than the other. I had a sound, Morgan, in a factory set a few revs ago, which was osc 2 soft sync’d to 1 but two octaves higher, both oscillator producing square waves and the suboctaves at equal volume, for a 16-voice stack of four
perfectly-in-phase square waves. There were sounds like this as leads in
the Morg Garson “Moog” records such as Black Mass.

(One of the cooler features of the Wiard VCO is that there’s a synch *pot*, which can be adjusted from no synch, through varying degrees of soft synch with the threshold for
>oscillator reset being changed, to rock-solid hard synchronization … I
>don’t know of any others that allow this.)

I was in touch for a short while with a gent who was creating a feature-
packed modular called the EVOS (info in the AH archives). It never saw
the light of day AFAIK but it’s oscillators had the same continuously
variable Sync input function.

You have a Wiard? :-)

So with soft synch, if VCO1 & VCO2 at close frequencies, BUT freerunning,whether or not VCO2 will synch to VCO1 may vary based on slight phase/frequency differences between the two oscillators.  And as those differences will change over time, yes, the synched sound may vary depending on exactly when you hit the “synch” button.

If you don’t have the slave oscillator detuned into the “groove” which allows soft synch to lock, it can jump in and out of synch creating it’s own effect. James Reynolds created a sound, “Faux Organ” in the factory presets which takes advantage of this effect, IIRC.

Synths I know of with Soft Sync:

Moog 921b oscillators
Roland SH5 (you have to tune it’s slave oscillator flat as well as the A6s)
Matrix 6 (Oberheim)

I know that the curtis 3340 oscillator had a soft sync input pin as well as a hard sync input but I don’t remember any CEM synths
with this feature.

Ableton Live: Creating Bass Sounds with FM (works with any FM synth, too)

Creating Bass Sounds with FM by Moogulator
TUTORIAL for Operator for Ableton Live 4.1 or higher
and other FM Synthesizers like DX / TG (by Yamaha)

this lesson should explain that it is quite easy to use FM. Operator makes it easier than what is said about FM. let’s start to make some bass patches and learn how to do it in this lesson. No matter if it’s an acoustic bass or some fancy synth bass lines you want to create.

1) Let’s start from the initialized sound which is a sine wave. A sine wave has only one tone with no overtones or high harmonics.
A bass or electric bass has sonically not too many of them but it is indeed more complex than just a sinewave.

now concentrate on a “pair” of 2 oscillators and their results first, one oscillator (B) modulates the frequency of the one below it (A).
Set all coarse frequency knobs of oscillator A and B to 0, it’s the lowest you can get – you could start from 1 as well and transpose the overall patch pitch down one octave. Take this algorithm to start with, the algorithm shows the way the oscillators can influence each other, you find it on the bottom right after you have clicked the grey field – choose this one:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
why? there are two independent branches, that can be used for beefing the sound up a bit later.

Oscillator B’s level to around -14dB. You will hear a static e-bass spectrum. not bad.
Play with level and coarse frequencies (Osc. B) to get an idea of how the spectrum changes. the higher, the more “small bellish” it gets. put it back to 0 after all.

2.) to get it into a percussive shape you need to adjust the
envelopes. since you are now using 2 Oscillators note that Oscillator A is the fundamental volume of the overall sound and the modulating oscillator B changes the timbre/sound colour!

the envelopes change the volume of each Oscillator over time, so if you want this to happen for the volume click somewhere on the grey area of oscillator A and it will turn brighter and here you can see controls for Oscillator A volume: the envelope changes the volume over time.
The decay time should be short, the sustain level should be smaller after the decay time has passed.
You can experiment with the modulating envelope to change the sound dynamically:
the graphical interface will give you an idea, what shape the volume will follow. play on the keyboards low notes and move the little green handles and hear what’s happening. note that Attack, Decay and Release are all setting durations and the levels are Initial, Peak and Sustain. to hear the effect of Decay you need to lower the Sustain level.

Here is an example how it could be, lets set it like this – if you make the decay longer, it will take too much time to fall back to the Sustain level:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
The envelope of Oscillator B can chance the sound timbre , so keep the volume envelope “longer” (raise “Decay”) to hear the effect, again click on the Oscillator B (shown in light grey here) and you can change it’s “way” over time also play around with it like on the volume envelope above.
since this is the key of changing the sound itself think of the envelope as a contour shaper. You can set the time it needs to reach the maximum peak level (Attack) and hear the changing timbre. In fact it still modulated the Oscillators Level, but since it is the one that also modulates the frequency of Oscillator B it will change the timbre related to the Coards frequency ratio between both oscillators!
So forming the sound happening HERE and this envelope will be the movement of the timbre over time.

Back to the bass patch it should look like this:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
Here it is: a simple E-Bass! Play on the lower 2 octaves on the keyboard.

It’s not big enough? Here’s a trick to fatten it up:
Crank up “spread” to have a broader wider sound impression (not necessary, but check out what sound good to your ears).
Now copy what you did to Oscillators A and B in the first “branch” of our algorithm:
Play with the frequencies (coarse and fine) of Oscillator C and D, and hear: there are two sounds in one now! So you could model some “string like plucked sound”. But first just use it to make it more fat: Set the oscillators levels and pitches with Oscillator C set the same envelope and Coarse frequency as A and do the same with Oscillator D (same as B). This is quite a nice bass basic patch, isn’t it?

More wooden sounds you get with raising the modulating Coarse Frequency (try 1 or 2), it will get bellish when it’s too much. Play around with it again and play some notes on the keyboards lower end. Try changing the envelopes of that new C/D-branch. Also adjust the release rates where the deeper A-B branch should be the longer one (to keep it a bass sound).
Now Set C and D Coarse to 1, so it will be 1 octave higher than your original bass branch on A and B.
not bad, when you play and compare it to the one with no doubling? Set fine tune of Osc C and D to 8 or 16. Listen what happend!
Now there is – The final first Bass, with “octaved” clone of itself slightly detuned from the other, use fine tune here –

Here is how it ends up, the pitch of Oscillator B has been raised to have a brighter sound “more accoustic”:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
Of course you could also set oscilator B to 1 and 992 to have it detuned from all other oscillators (negative detune).
Since the “clone” bass on Oscillator C and D is one octave above the older A-B combination detune helps to let the sound “float”..

Here’s the Oscillator C envelope setting:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
You still have to play that bass on the lowest part of your keyboard.. so why not tuning the whole patch down.
to make more room, change transpose to -12 to have one more octave left on the low end.

The first real patch is ready now.
The trick here is to double the sound using that second branch, you can still check how it sounds by muting the Oscillators (click the D and C symbol to mute just the newer branch of our algorithm)

A bass is normally monophonic! So set the number of voices to 1. You can find it where the algorithms are: click on the right lowest grey field to see it. To make the accoustic basses and some synth basses glide click on the grey area above (where the pitch,spread and transpose knobs are) to see the pitch menu. click the red G and set the time and play! now you hear the sound gliding to the next note you play. try longer distances between the notes!

3) Get it more big again..
here’s another trick to widen the sound: set the algorithm to Parallel configuration of some Oscillators like this:
4 OP FM Algorithm
The trick here is to use the new structure for detuning 3 Oscillators instead of 2 branches. Note that your previous settings on Oscillator B now became a so called Carrier, it affects the volume, same for Oscillator C, which is still another Oscillator whose envelope will also shape THIS oscillators volume.. Note that Oscillator D now influences ALL oscillators below it!
Changing modulation frequencies will change the sound radically! Try it to get an impression! always play when you change the parameters and come back to the setting shown here after all:
if you keep all settings from the previous example you can set Coarse frequency of Oscillator B to “2 ” and fine to” 992″ (negative Detune). to give the sound more dynamics lets go a little further and set Level VEL of Envelope B to 79 shown here (it’s red):
(and set glide to off again for the following examples..)
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
As a result you got 3 Oscillators that are at least one octave apart from each other, this makes the sound richer , at least you can detune them more try fine tune of each oscillator exept D (which modulates a,b and c)!

Now you can tune the sound to be more modern and less “accoustic”? First: Still add more dynamics! chance Operator A Velocity settings as follows:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
You have raised feedback, which adds more noise to the Oscillator (maximum will result in almost pure white noise) and the velocity response of this envelope is also set to 25% here. Now play a nice typical FM bass..

The sound can be tweaked to you likes. More accoustic “plucked stringish”?
Set the frequencies of D to 0 and C to 20.

Play with different settings, shorten the decay phase of the envelopes to hear it’s effect to make it longer less percussive or shorten it to get a short blip bass, since you set the new frequencies you can set the “stringish” sound to be longer or shorter when the key is released: thats the release value on each envelope!

if you want a quick change try the “time” and “tone” knobs , they will change the harmonics and envelope times!

4) Want it more electronic and at least still “add more depth and phatness”:

Set the oscillators exept the modulating ones to Square32 or Saw32 with high rich sound (note: you still have them set to sine waves that have no overtones at all!) The waveform can be found under the corresponding envelope in red (reading “sine” at the moment) , click on it and set oscillators A and B to SW32 (thats a sawtooth wave and listen!)

Now it’s time to use the Filter to remove some frequencies and overtones that do not sound much like a synth bass now:
Switch it on (click the box on the right under the word “Filter” on and set it’s envelope and experiment after setting the red Envelope Amount Parameter to 80 or more and the (red) Freq/Vel Parameter for influence of velocity on the filter. the “plucked string” Oscillator C should be set back to 3 now, we want it less accoustic, right?

It should look like this exept the Resonance (ignore tone and time setting!)
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live
The more resonance, the more “electronic” it will sound. The envelopes on the left should always be longer (decay!) than the filter envelope since the filter reduces the overtones above the cutoff frequency. Resonance will amplifiy everything around the cutoff frequency! thats the one you control with the envelope and the more resonance you add the more “unreal” it will sound Try different settings of cutoff and resonance and chance the envelope shape, eg. you could add some attack which is the time from “initial” level to maximum (peak)..

Now it’s time to get the maximum of the synth engine and liven up the sound once more, for this experiment simply turn down the Resonance a bit and click on LFO above the filter. it can be seen as another Oscillator, set it’s rate to 6.60 and “Mod” (amount of Modulation) up to around 14%.
Set the destinations to some of the 3 carrier oscillators, choose A and C (they are inverted when active) like this:
Operator FM Bass patch Ableton live

Congratulations! Now you got an idea of what Operator can sound like! You can also learn about basses by simply choosing some of the bass presets and watch how they have been made. Feel always free to experiment! there are a lot of sounds to expore..

( Moogulator)

in german / auf deutsch: mehr über ableton live..

Waldorf Tricks from Snyxol

WALDORF… Tricks from Snyxol
(by: snyxol ÄT web DOT de)

HERE are some very useful Tips for XT/Microwave .. some are suitable for others also..
BIIIG thanks to Snyxol, who sent those to me.. because of the high useability I just asked him to put it here.. so.. here they are!!! Very helpful..!!!
> Subject: [MW2] tip: smooth hard sync
> if u want to hard sync waves without getting a harsh spectrum, do this:
> choose for osc. 1 triangle and ringmodulate!
> when modulating osc 2 pitch this results in a very smooth sweep, because the
> triangle fades
> the syncing jump out, thus the resulting signal is continuous.
> try it especially with the wavetables: resonant 1/2, resoharm, organs, chorus,
> softsaw!
> greets to all microwave users,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW2] tip: soft sounds with waveshaper filter
> with waveshaper, modulating filter cutoff makes the spectrum change very very
> fast,
> resulting in agressive and crazy sounds (when using other waveforms than
> square).
> but if u want slower, softer sweeps, try this:
> let cutoff constant.
> modulate only the drive = output volume of the mixer (wave 1 mix, if this is
> the only
> used source).
> a sweeping spectrum with odd harmonics only can be made with triangle or
> square (the latter one filtered).
> cool example: osc1: triangle; filter 1 extra: a harsh wave from heavyfuzz,
> distorted or
> clipper;
> try emphasing the bottom harmonic with the filter.
> it sounds similar to a hard sync sweep.
> cheers,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW2] tip: S&H
> To obtain the same timbre on every note pitch, keyfollow must modulate S&H
> Rate with Amt.
> +56.
> it´s nearly harmonic, but still metallic (well, that´s the intention of S&H)
> when setting
> S&H Rate to 91 (or add -24, -12, +12, 24, etc.) and osc pitch to okt = semit =
> det = 0.
> example: killer robot voice with above settings and wavetable Chorus2;
> modulate the
> wavetable by envelope!
> regards,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW2] tip: overflow and sin(x)
> the overflow clipping can also be used for soft (pre-filter-) distortion by
> applying the
> sin(x)>LP12 filter. the owerflow jumps disappear.
> regards,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW2] tip: unisono spread mod.
> here is a trick how to modulate unisono spread by LFO, envelope, modwheel
> o.w.:
> don´t use the normal spread; take instead a not synced random-LFO as spread
> source.
> these random values are different in each voice and are mostly more or less
> homogen
> distributed.
> example: fat saw lead, the fatness slowly modulated by LFO 1, and LFO 2 is the
> spread source:
> poly, unisono, spread = 0
> LFO 1:
> Sync: on/Clock (!!!) (phases must be equal in all voices)
> rate: 20
> shape: sin/tri
> LFO 2:
> Sync: off (!!!) (phases must be different in all voices)
> rate: 0 (but at the beginning u must set it for a short time to a bigger
> value)
> shape: random
> Mod 2:
> Src: LFO 1 (or envelope, modwheel, etc.)
> Amnt: +46
> Dest: M3 Amnt
> Mod 3:
> Src: LFO 2
> Amnt: 0 (or other value for asymmetry)
> Dest: Pitch
> happy tweaking!
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW] tip: pitch independ. phasing
> ### pitch independent detune phasing rate ###
> (i´m not perfect in english, but i assume the phase drifting effect caused by
> detune is
> called “phasing” (?))
> if 2 oscillators have constant (not modulated) detune, the phasing rate is
> bigger at bigger
> pitch, more exactly: phasing rate depends exponentially on pitch and doubles
> after each
> oktave.
> but for certain sounds a constant, pitch independent phasing rate would be
> desireable.
> here is a solution that achieves it: (drawback: it needs the modwheel or one
> of the CCs
> W,X,Y,Z to set detune)
> osc.s: same wave, exactly (!) same pitch, no detune
> mixer: both waves at same level (63)
> modmatrix:
> mod 3: src: modwheel; amnt: +17; dest: Osc2 pitch
> mod 4: src: keyfollow; amnt: -45; dest: M3 Amount
> the modwheel sets the phasing rate.
> happy synthesizing,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW] tip: pitch indep. phas. – 2
> ### pitch independent detune phasing rate – part 2 ###
> now i have a better implementation that doesn´t need the modwheel:
> osc.s: same wave, exactly (!) same pitch, no detune
> mixer: both waves at same level (63)
> modmatrix:
> mod 3: src: maximum; amnt: -17 (or whatever); dest: Osc1 pitch
> mod 4: src: maximum; amnt: +17 (or whatever); dest: Osc2 pitch
> mod 5: src: keyfollow; amnt: +45; dest: M3 Amount
> mod 6: src: keyfollow; amnt: -45; dest: M4 Amount
> you set the phasing rate by the amounts of M3/4, both must have the same
> absolute value and
> M3 must be negative and M4 positive.
> happy synthesizing,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW] tip: freq. as mod source
> ### frequency as modulation source ###
> frequency can be suitable to modulate FM Amnt, detune, etc.
> this is the way to convert keyfollow (pitch) to frequency:
> mod matrix entry: src: keyfollow; amnt: +/-45; dest: M1/…/4 Amount
> the trick is that the amount of a mod has a logarithmic scale => keyfollow is
> exponentialised => frequency.
> works only correctly with +/- 45.
> happy synthesizing,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW] tip: FM Amount
> FM is linear and FM Amount is pitch independent => at higher pitches the
> impact is weaker
> => timbre is pitch dependent.
> it´s also possible to keep the timbre independent of pitch by making FM Amount
> be
> proportional to the carrier frequency:
> FM Amount = 0;
> mod 1: src: maximum; amnt: +59 (or whatever, must be >0); dest: FM Amount
> mod 5: src: keyfollow; amnt: +45; dest: M1 Amount
> or if u want to modulate fm amnt, modulate M1 Amount, or exchange in M1
> maximum by sth.
> like LFO, env., modwheel,…
> happy synthesizing,
> snyxol
> Subject: [MW] tip: comb+ filter
> ### comb+ filter / envelope driven mono chorus ###
> on the MW2 u can emulate a comb+ filter without resonance (mono chorus)
> modulated by
> envelope/LFO/whatever:
> the mod source (in this example: free envelope) shifts the relative phase
> between both
> osc.s.
> it behaves the same as a 1-osc-synth with comb+ filter.
> if the stages of the envelope have different slopes, the fatness changes
> between them.
> when applying additionally the normal chorus, u can get a brain away blowing
> fat phasing.
> sounds cool with saw, sqr and chorus2.
> the case of sqr is particularly interesting: the sum of 2 phase shifting
> square waves is
> a symmetric PWM pulse wave, containing only odd harmonics; the free envelope
> controls the
> pulse width.
> osc.s: same wave, exactly (!) same pitch, no detune
> phase 1: 3°
> phase 2: try out!
> mixer: both waves at same level (63)
> trigger2: mode: poly; assign: normal
> modmatrix:
> modifier 2: src 1: modify #4; type: filter; param: 120
> modifier 3: src 1: modify #2; src 2: modwheel; type: *
> modifier 4: src 1: free env; type: diff
> mod 1: src: modify #3; amnt: -36; dest: Osc1 pitch
> mod 2: src: modify #3; amnt: +36; dest: Osc2 pitch
> mod 3: src: keyfollow; amnt: -45; dest: M2 Amount
> mod 4: src: keyfollow; amnt: +45; dest: M1 Amount
> set the mod depht of phase with modwheel, and set startingpoint of phase
> modulation
> with the phases of both oscs.
> that´s how it works:
> mod 1..4: see “[MW] tip: pitch independ. phasing” and “[MW] tip: freq. as mod
> source”.
> to move the relative phase the oscs must be detuned.
> the phasing speed is proportional to the frequency difference (not detune!) of
> the
> oscs.
> mod 3/4 make the frequency difference pitch independent.
> modifier 4: the slope of the free envelope must be proportional to the phasing
> speed => the
> env must first be differentiated and then it must modulate the frequency
> difference.
> modifier 2: before the differentiated envelope modulates the frequency
> difference, it is
> smoothed to reduce abrupt fatness changes between the stages.
> happy synthesizing,
> snyxol