- Synonyme for a MIDI Controller Knob Device - Is a device that allows to change Parameters on Synths in realtime, lots of them also have a keyboard and other "input" sensors etc..
- The Midi Controller
128 Controllers can control the Sound of any MIDI Device. The standard Midi Controllers are mapped to some Controllers by Default, others are freely assignable or defined in the General Midi Standard, most Synthesizers do not implement GM but have a special GM Mode for playing Standard Midi Files SMF. The Synthesizers allow to map the Controllers to control any musical parameter or a set of those (depends on the era when the Synth was made..)
Pitchbend and Aftertouch / Pressure are special Controllers (Bidirectional, Higher Resolution) Velocity
- 0 Programm Bank Select
- 1 Modulation Wheel (Modwheel)
- 2 Breath Control (free)
- 5 Portamento Time
- 6 Data Entry (free)
- 7 Volume (!!)
- 10 Panning (Stereo)
- 11 Expression Pedal
- 64 Hold Pedal
- 65 Portamento (on)
- 120 All Sound Off
- 121 All Controllers Reset
- 122 Local Keyboard on/off
- 123 All Notes Off
- 124 Omni Off (quite silly but..)
- 125 Omni On (also silly today..)
- 126 monophonic
- 127 polyphonic
all Controllers are limited to 128 Steps (0-127, = 7 Bit), but NRPNs allow cascading Controllers for higher resolution / addressing.
note that all of these must NOT be used as listed here, but 120-127 are quite commonly routed like listed, also modwheel, volume and panning.