Yamaha Synthesizer, Japan
- 1 the analogue era - Control Synthesizer
- 2 the digital era - FM Synthesizers from DX to FS1R
- 2.1 some quirks about keyboards and velocity
- 2.2 first generation FM Synthesizers
- 2.3 second generation FM Synthesizers
- 2.4 3rd generation FM Synthesizers
- 2.5 4th generation FM Synthesizers
- 2.6 5th generation FM Synthesizers
- 2.7 6th generatio FM Synths (2015)
- 2.8 Links + EDITORS / EDITOREN
- 2.9 more FM literature.. free.. off this site..
- 2.10 FM programming hints
- 2.11 DX7II Disc Format (deutsch)
- 3 Digital Non-FM Synths
the analogue era - Control Synthesizer
SY1 + SY2
First Yamaha Synthesizer.. 1974, so it was after Roland (strnage, because Yamaha was the MUCH bigger company.. SY1 and SY2 after that the CS (control series) came up.. the sy has hpf and lpf multimode filter but is in fact more a preset machine with a little control..
the CS Series (= control synthesizer )
do NOT confuse the CS series with the "new" CS1x and cs2x or cs6x, htese are romplers and have a compeletely different structure..
Yamaha Monophonic Series
CS5,CS10, CS15, CS30 and CS30L (CS30 without sequencer) all very powerfull especially the CS30 and the smaller CS15
CS5 + CS10
quite strange surface on the CS30 (find waveform select in the filter section or select the filter type in the VCA section ;) ..) but the CS30 has at leas lots of features like crossmod,sync, 2 multimode filters (with resonance),analogue sequencer,fast lfos, etc. the CS15 follows the yamaha analogue synth philsophy: 2 "channels" with extra outputs (same in the CS30 of course) where you can even use 2 separate VCO-VCF-VCA structures.. the LFO is about 50Hz audio speed on both. please click the images of CS5 and CS30 for all parameters. more CS (control synthesizer) synthesizers are: CS40m,CS70, CS80 and the smaller CS60 and CS50 and polyphonic exept the cs40m. CS5 finally is reduced to one of it all: 1 env,1 vco, 1 vcf ,lfo with s/h.
the CS15 has also quite a lot of features but "only" 2 ENVs (pos/neg at the same time accessible via a switch like the CS30 offers.. ) both have dual VCAs and 2 multimode VCF with resonance (independantly), but the CS-15 has no ring/crossmod but 2 VCOs and the fast lfo..
CS15 sounds wanted? still have some on DAT ;).. will follow sooner or later ..
the CS10 has only 1 VCO,also 2 ENVs and noise gen (as the the CS15 and 30) and ONE multimode filter (still lpf,hpf,bpf), the
CS30 + CS30L
YAMAHA CS30, the flag ship had 3 ENVs (with pos and neg),1 LFO that has (as the cs40m) multiple waveforms for the same LFO!! so you can mod filter 1 with rectangular LFO and VCO by saw LFO waveform but same frequency!! ringmod, crossmodulation (=FM!) means you can mod VCO1 by VCO2 frequency!! (metallic spectra!), noise gen. very comfortable but most chaotic interface ever done on a synthesizer! why? ever selected filter types in the VCA section? this "feature" is yamaha UI only ;) so if you come around the strange illogical surface this is a 2 VCF multimode filter (bpf 6dB/oct.,lpf,hpf 12dB/oct.), very fast and slow envs (time x 5 switch!).. so you have 2 ranges.. btw: the lfo can be quite fast.. the cs 30 also lets you choose the sequencer as a mod source for VCO1,2,both,filter1,filter2 - the sequencer can be clocked by the LFO or by an internal clock here's a nice audio demo it's the internal sequencer and no FX: cs30_demo.mp3 deutsche info:
der YAMAHA CS30 ist ein analoger synthesizer mit 3 Hüllkurven, einem LFO,der für jede modsektion eine eigene wellenform bekommt und dabei in den audiobereich reingeht (schnell!!) , die hüllkurven haben einen 5x mode, so können sie schnell sein oder 5x verlangsamt werden, das macht bei 2 multimodefiltern mit resonanz sicher auch sinn, denn die haben ja nicht nur LPF zu bieten. dazu gibt es einen 8step analogsequencer,der natürlich die VCOs und co steuern kann und die hüllkurven triggern (kann eingestellt werden, ob das stattfinden soll oder nicht pro ENV!! dazu gibt es Ringmodulation und FM/Crossmodulation und beide VCOs gehen von 128" bis hoch zu 2" , also eine irre range!! es gibt 2 VCAs, und 2 getrennte outs für zwei signalwege, ext. input ist auch vorhanden. der klang ist sehr besonders, wer den cs80 kennt, hat eine grobe vorstellung, nur geht hier synthesetehcnisch weit mehr als beim CS80!)-übrigens kann der LFO (speed) per Hüllkurve moduliert werden! auch negative modulation der hüllkurven ist möglich bei quasi allen zielen!.
the CS-30L is the SAME as the CS30 but no Sequencer. It's Layout changed a bit but the keyboard is the same 3 and 1/2 octaves one..
well, it is almost the same strange logic but it's a huge source of very interesting sounds since it also has 2 resonant filters, 3 envs and 2 FMable OSCs with ringmod..
it is designed like Rolands sh3a - in a case, you see the little metal things? here you can attach the cover to take it on the road.. and I must say: yes, it is much easier to transport then..
the "wooden panel" series cs50, cs60, cs70 , cs80 and cs40m simply have another design..
but there are a lot of similarities.. but more "luxury" and more heavy ;) means: the cs80 the "classic" yamaha has some special features like ribbon controllers, polyphony (6 cs60/8 voice/cs80) and the cs80 even poly aftertouch keyboard!!
the CS15d is btw. NOT a slightly different CS15! it looks more like the cs40m - 2 ENV (adsr), filter, 100hz lfo (as most yamaha CS series had!!), also "2 channel" system with some presets.. not bad, right? duophonic or 2 VCOs thats YOUR choice!
well known from Front242 and other early electronic groups... the CS-40m the cs40m synthesizer was monophonic and also "wooden side paneled" (the cs40 was released 1/2 years after the CS50-80/CS15-30 - in 1980) had the same "tricky" LFO waveform per section as discribed for the CS30: one lfo but another waveform for VCF ,VCO etc.. so this allowed "global tempo sync", the filter was a multimode filter (12dB : lpf,hpf or 6dB bpf).. the most famous users were Front242 (geography album). and: it had memory!! after saving a sound you could not change it (exept very small changes) but well.. even the eraly prophet 5 had this problem,too ;) anyway it is a remarkable sound, because multimode filters very not that often found on other synthesizers of that time.. so yamaha maybe showed their typical characteristics: lots of possibilies, somewhat unusual surface, special sound.. the CS-40m is quite close to a CS15 with memory but a nice ringmod added or a smaller CS30 with no sequencer less ENVs but memory... anyway it's a strange way the sound is memorized: once you have saved a sound it will not be able to re-edit it again..
ein kleiner, batteriebetriebener synthesizer! cs01 er wurde von Thomas (Anyware-Instruments) modifiziert,das er nun selbstoszillation beherrscht, die sich genau so anhört ;) Bei mir liegt die Resonanz nun auf dem VCA Drehregler,der sonst für den Breathcontroller zuständig ist.. Da dieser aber nervig ist, ist mein cs01 nun acid-geeignet ;)
der CS01 ist in 2 versionen erhältlich (oder besser war erhältlich): diese version ist die erste, mit einem schalter für resonanz oder keine resonanz, die mk2 version hat dort einen regler. meiner hat den VCA regler links (normal für den bc1 gedacht), sein filter klingt doch nett oder? (soundbeispiel oben). die modifikation ist ansich nur einen widerstand ändern und ein poti etwas trimmen ;)
was noch GINGE: Ja, der Simpel-Ringmod aus dem Moog Liberation...Die beiden Rechteckwellen auf eine Exclusiv-OR-Gate geben (z.B. ein Gatter aus dem HEF4030 oder HEF4070.... Laustärkepoti dran und das auf den Filtereingang legen und fertig...muss evtl. von den Pegeln her noch etwas angepasst werden. Aber der CS hat nur einen Osc, somit muss ein einfacher rechteck-OSC geschaffen werden.. nett wäre auch filterausgang als osc2, nur ginge das nicht mit dieser schaltung,denn diese funktioniert nur mit rechteck.
some ideas for modding: lfo speedup (possible)
- gate on the reso switch (not the standard ENV).. so you can select like on the sh101
- invert the env
- add distortion and use the vca level slider, because it does not have sooo much effect ,so we could sacrifice it for another nice functionality..
- and there are still the breathcontrol controls, imo they are cool 2 more controllers.. one used for reso already, but vca could do another thing ;)
- the cs01 could like some "dirt" generators or suboscs, or subdivision of the speedup LFO?
- intense the mod amount of the lfo .. imo it is not that much even with modwheel at max!
- and: maybe change the bender bending down instead?.. nicer for some basses..
- maybe something for "crackling" sounds? PWM subdivision or mod of any kind.. maybe as a nice audio osc..
aaahh, moment: the cs01 has a custom chip, so pwm is not availble for mod, but maybe you can re-use the highspeed lfo as a mixable OSC? nice for clicks n cuts kind of sounds?.this CS01 is a modified! the resonance is now on VCA bias (left), that normally sets the VCA amount of the breath controller and: able to self-oscillate!! but: I do not really like breath control.. so Thomas of Anyware-Instruments helped me to do this modification ;) it's just exchanging a resitor and adjusting one trimmer/poti mine is the mk1 version (has a switch for resonance), but mine has a knob for resonance to self oscillate.. I do not like breath controllers much, so this is a much better version for me
* ringmod on the resonance switch (atm useless). maybe amount on VCF bias (BC1). * CV / gate control and also filter control via MIDI (not too difficult).. * SubOsc by frequency division (maybe nicer for the former switch, so set the ringmod on vcf bc bias on the left) * ..this is going to be the smallest battery driven synth on stage ;)
Der CS01 sieht zwar nicht danach aus, aber er kann doch was! Maybe the CS01 doesn't look like a real synth, but it can produce real good sounds!
YAMAHA Reface CS
digital synth - simulating analog kind of synth - the Reface Series - small and mobile
Yamaha Polyphonic Series
CS60, CS80, CS50
CS80 synthesizer with ribbon controller and polypressure!
special thing: memories! but the cs60 had simply another row of small sliders as a "memory" to switch beween the 2 sets.. strange idea? right!! this is yamaha! remeber vangelis? thats the CS80's special smooth sound.. all of them had hpf and lpf mode! both with resonance
..but all of these were really innovative and had quite complex structure.. the best you can understand them as 2 signal path synthesizers in one.. see above (CS30, CS15 features).. but polyphonic.. the smallest was the cs50: simple structure, same for the cs60.. but the cs80 remindet of the mono brothers CS15-30 : 2 VCFs!..
anyway it did not reach the complexiy of the CS30, but it had "presets" and "memorys" (this was of value those times.. if you could carry the 100kg - cs80 ..) the cs70 finally had real memory!! but it was quite more an expanded cs40m ;) btw: there is also a software emulation of the CS80 by arturia..
the CS70m came in 1981, 6 voice poly synth with "lots" of memories (15 per "channel"). multimode filter, can be seen as some sort of followup to the cs 80 or a poly-cs40m .. quite rare., strange megnetic cards for sounds were used to archive them, dual channel concept means: it is a 12voice synth -those channels can be layered and detuned slightly .. so finally you have 2 filters per voice and one vco.. but assume you will layer them and get a nice cs80 followup synth but no poly aftertouch or ribbon but it had a 600 note poly sequencer, 4 sequence
but here: the CS01, the smallest.. it's lfo isn't that fdast as the CS15's or CS30 etc.. btw: the design of the CS series was quite close to the organ design of eg. the
more Yamaha Synths: http://www.sequencer.de/syns/yamaha
Yamaha analogue Trigger: gate pulse in/out 10V negative to GROUND. btw: there is a "rumour" around the CS series respond to korg logic Hz/oct. - thats not true. it's a special exponential characteristics.. you need a special interface to midify it!!.. so: simply play it! there are some special interfaces around .. eg EES in germany did one.. CV in/out: 0,0835 V to 4 V (exponential) Trigger in: Note off 15 V to 3 V / Note on 0 V to -10 V Trigger out: Note off 3 V / Note on -7 V
the digital era - FM Synthesizers from DX to FS1R
the DX7 got updated for its old style 10bit D/A converters. so the DX7II and DX7IIFD (and dx7s) were born 1987 (read about disk format of it under "digital" or tricks). there was a rack version also: the TX802. the 2nd generation DX7II had unisono mode!! find the DX7II as a rack "TX802" . find unisono in TX816/216,TX802, DX7II series and layer-type sounds on the FS1R,tg/sy models. the DX-21 and DX11/tx81z have performance and/or unison modes ,too! which is very interesting!! sounds fat!
btw: there have been a lot of expansions for the DX7 (more memory etc.. like e! etc..) today you can get a "hardware plugin board" PLG-DX that is in fact a complete DX-7 for CS6X, Motif series etc.. the dx200 is also based on the DX7 PLG board. its a DX7 with knobs like some sort of macro "easy page"-control.. you can edit the DX7 with software but in a live situation you still have those knobs like "harmonics" to change the OP frequencies at one knob tweak.. so it is a comprimise,but not a bad one.. there is only one much better solution: the jellinghaus programmer: (dortmund/germany JELLINGHAUS - controls DX7,TX7 or TF modules of a TX816 module rack as well..)
the latest DX7 - based synth is the strongly expanded yamaha FS1R, has 8 OPs and another 8 "unvoiced" OPs with BPF filters and lots more plus formant sequencing. Yamaha DX-7II Centennial: there was a special version in 1988 with 76 keys, 32voices, means 2 DX7IIs in one case.. rare of course like the silver version of the DX7. there is another very rare 8OP "vintage" synthesizer from 1988 called yamaha FVX1 it's high price may have shocked the ppl and helped not to sell it much, had also FX on board.
but before the FS1R, yamaha had the big SY and TG series:
YAMAHA SY77 and TG77 that had samples on board and the first FM synthesiizers form yamaha with filters (well you do not necessarly need them in an fm synth) 2 filters to be exact. also extra env for pan and samples that could be included in the FM signal path (As an operator), had 3 feddback lines instead of 1, the FS1R also has only 1 feedback line. also the TG77 , SY77 and SY99 all had a free assignable algorithm. the SY99 had some ram slots to use OWN samples with!!.. 4 slots, 512MB each. available. thats the main difference and the 2 spx900 FX processors. the TG77 had ind. outs. the SY77 and TG77 had a smaller fx unit, but also 2x2 FX sections as the SY99 but no sample ram. also the tg and sy synths could route the pitch env individually to the OPs unlike all other yamaha fm synthesizers.
the latest one is the DX7 as a "plugin hardware" that can be attached to some newer yamaha keyboards and the dx200 groovebox, that has a DX7 and a 16step sequencer in it.. (german: deutscher test hier zu lesen!)
of course there are also software plugins - but not from yamaha. native instruments made the fm7 and loftsoft has the fmheaven. both got a free algo-matrix and fm7 has 128 step envelopes that even sound "wavetable'ish" if intensitively used
some quirks about keyboards and velocity
most yamaha FM synthesizer KEYBOARDS do have a range from 0 to 120 for velocity! thats,why some people get shocked when they realize: oh, I can not go beyond 120 (121-127 = maximum velocity). so I recommend the racked versions exept if you do not want to use the keyboards for other synthesizers than the internal one!! the old dx, the newer one (DX7II), SY77.. etc.. they are all limited here.. anyway the SY99 is still the top model for 6OP FM with rom AND ram samples.. the FS1R sounds a bit "nicer" .. and it's response is somewhat "slower".. we are talking about "freak infos" here..
first generation FM Synthesizers
typical: DX1, DX5, DX7, GS1/2 (ok, these are generation 0) 1st generation DX series (80ies, a bit rough sounding 10bit converters): DX1,DX5, TX7, DX9, TX816 / TX216, DX21
the gs1 and gs2 started it all with FM synthesis (simple "piano like" combo keyboards, also the CE20 and CE25 combo simple-sizers.. not really worth a look these days.. shame on me for all vintage fm fans, but it's just preset keyboards..) - first there was the DX1 with a big algorithm display 1984, later the DX-5 (1985) and of course the DX7 (1983). they are all 6 OP FM synthesizer. the DX-1 was very very expensive but had lots of displays and 76key keyboard. the reast qas identical to the DX1
that means: you got 6 Oscillators with Sine Waves ,
the most exiting thing maybe the enormous dynamics, because every OP envelope (OP = operator = oscillator) could be set individually to respond to velocity. yes: every OP has a dedicated output level and ratio and multi-stage envelope.
the speciality with yamaha is: you need to think different: the rates are "angles",so 99 is the fastest possible rate! (don't confuse this!)..
at the same time yamaha put out the 4 OP systems (cheaper), DX9 (1983) and later the DX21 that had split and dual mode like the DX5 and the poly mode only synths DX27, DX100 etc.. all 4OP synthesizers.
more 4 OP synthesizers? the V50 workstation, DX11 (the first 4OP - multimode dx!), TX81z (racked DX11),FB01 small module in a "cheap" looking case. (smaller than 19", not rackable but an expander)..
also they introduced rack modules like the TX-7 (the non-rackable but desktop DX-7) and the big TX816 . it had lots of tf1 modules that represent ONE DX7 each,so you could eqasily have 8 DX-7's in a rack!.. the TX216 had 2 TF1 modules 1985.
the dx or fm synthesis is well known for bell and rhodes sounds, but it can do much more than that!! or fm basses got popular in the 90ies ;) but autechre and other new electro bands showed there is another use of fm synthesis sounds!!
the first generation DX had 10bit DA converters, so you had aliasing and "hard" sounding sonic "response". there were very strange models like the ys100 and ys200 (almost preset/simplified FM synthesizers), the 4OP workstation V50 and 6OP and 4OP synthesizers
second generation FM Synthesizers
2nd generation (better DA on some models, still the most wanted generation for its "vitality" of sound): DX27, DX-27s/DX27L, DX100, FB01, DX-7IID, DX-7IIFD, DX7s, TX-802, TX81z, DX-11, V-50, TQ05 ... 16bits AD from now! higher quality. on the DX7II / DX11/TX81z models. Yamaha also put out the FB01
very cheap 4OP synth with 8xmultitimbral synth. you can change everything as long as you use a software editor. but: well, for FM you should consider editor software anyway. the 4OP and 6OP Range also took place in Yamahas "keyboard" range and some "exotic" keyboards (cheap to mid price range). even sound cards..
a special machine is the MSX Computer CS5m, which is almost the same like the FB-01 or a downsized TX81z (little drawbacks..) but it is perfect for lofi and 8bit lovers ,because you can access the AY8910 , the internal 4 OP synth is not as easy to access via MSX (maybe for compatibelity reasons) so you have to use the additional editor and composer card or try to find the right pokes and peeks..)
3rd generation FM Synthesizers
TG77,SY77, SY99 added samples (77:rom, 99: ram), designing your own algorithms and up to 3 feedbacks and nice spx like FX (spx1000 x2 on the SY99) and : from now on no1 could say FM sounds thin!! thats still refering to the 1st/2nd gen fm synths .. 20bit AD now.. more hi-end sound but some prefer the 2nd generation for "authentic" dx sound (rough and hard) we are talking about small changes..
4th generation FM Synthesizers
FS1R , the only 8 OP + 8 OP(unvoiced) synth!
5th generation FM Synthesizers
dx200, plugin concept: works on most yamaha workstation called plg100dx (beside modules for physical modeling aka vl70m, piano and VA (called AN) etc.. well ,the dx-200 is almost soundwise the "2nd generation"..
6th generatio FM Synths (2015)
- Reface DX is a 4OP FM Synth with astounding pressure behind the bass - so this should be 6OP or more some times..
but we can expect a lot more from Yamaha in 2015 - a new synthesis…
6th Gen - Reface DX this one is even more punchy - but with 4OPs only - maybe a start for more? Feedback is different (shapes the waveforms instead of making it noisier like white noise) but 8step envelopes..
Links + EDITORS / EDITOREN
beside Apple/Emagic/C-lab sounddiver which will sooner or later be cancelled because apple thinks midi and hardware is over.. try these:
for the fs1r find an editor (free) here http://www4.airnet.ne.jp/k_take/fs1r_editor_english.html
with yamaha fm synth you may want a nice editor? yes! you can still use SOUNDDIVER (thats the best one) if you are on a mac, for pc users you may need to use midiquest or unisyn / .. or the free dx-manager Die Seite von KPR hat eine recht gute Liste mit Software die du austesten koenntest. http://www.dx7heaven.com/
more about dx7 by dave benson Dave Bensons Page ist auch ein Muss fuer jeden DX7 Besitzer. http://www.math.uga.edu/~djb/html/dx7.html
some freeware for several synths incl fs1r etc.: Hier noch ein Link zu einem Freeware Editor Programm, fuer diverse Synthesizer... http://www.jsynthlib.org/
who ever wants to edit on an atari, still can use this - Wer sich ein wenig mit dem ATARI auskennt kann den ST Emulator Steem mit div. ATARI Software (die mittlerweile freeware ist) einsetzen... http://steem.atari.st/ http://tamw.atari-users.net/
emulations for ST stuff can be found here: für den mac gibts natürlich auch ST emulationen,aber da hat man ja sounddiver (noSTalgia wäre sonst zu nennen siehe emulation.net)
more FM literature.. free.. off this site..
FM programming hints
SUMMA has done a nice table to check the ratio between the OSCs - since FM is based on RATIOS I can tell you why: it is simply easier because you can also check the harmonic content by ratios.. with standard synth absolute frequencies or octaves you also don't have the RANGE 1:32.. 1. Ratio Verhaeltnisse entsprechen der Harmonischen Reihe.. 2. Ganze X:Y Ratio Verhaeltnisse ergeben immer eine "reine Modulation"... 3. Gerade bei hoeheren Frequenzen ist die Unterteilung feiner als bei der Oktave/Semitone Einteilung... the resolution with higher frequencies is much higher with ratios..
DX FM -> VZ Coarse (Halbtoene / semitones)
- 1 = 0
- 2 = 12
- 3 = 19
- 4 = 24
- 5 = 28
- 6 = 30
- 0.5 = -12
- 0.25 = -19
- 0.125 = -24
- 0.065 = -28
- 0.0325 = -30
DX7II Disc Format (deutsch)
Der DX7II schreibt seine Disketten im MSX-Format, ein altes Format aus der 8-bit Computer Zeit, den japanische Hersteller fast schon zum Ende der 8bit-Ära geschaffen haben.. Wenn man mit dem Mac oder PC jetzt auf die Sounds zugreifen (zB um sie in Native Instruments FM7 oder fmheaven zu importieren) will muss man sich wohl nach einem Converter umschauen der MSX Diskformate lesen kann. Also nicht DOS! Es gibt noch ein paar andere ältere Geräte von Yamaha die dieses Format benutzen.. Vorsicht: viele emulatoren emulieren nicht das disk-format sondern die hardware und arbeiten mit abbildern der MSX disks im DOS oder Mac/HFS(+) format.. versuchs bei http://www.emulation.net
Digital Non-FM Synths
SY22, SY35, TG33
Yamaha made the SY22 and the voice doubled TG33 and SY35 (all with AT and VEL , the tg33 has no keys of course) as VECTOR SYNTHESIZERS, so they all have 2 FM (2OP only) and 2 ROM OSCs (yamaha call it AWM) to blend between with a joystick like the prophet VS or korg wavestation.. the FM is not really accessable, but there are some secret paramters in there.. but not reachable via sounddiver etc. but I have seen 2 editors on PC that will do it.. but is is NOT more than adjusting the spectrum a bit and some harmonics.. but since it is based on FM (ok, it's only 2 Oscs, but its FM!) it should be mentioned here.. they are not bad for pads!.. there are some hidden parameters SY22,SY35,TG33: Algorithm, Waveform, Frequency, including Fixed Frequency Mode Detune and Pitch Scaling (also for rom sample section), Amp Envelope with Level/Rate scaling Pitch/Amp LFO switch (both operators) there is a cool site on the vector series here.. since the samples are 12bit and the FM is 2 Oscillator FM this one is for quite industrial pads!!.. since it is quite cheap you could have fun with one of these..
there are some editors for the hidden parameters, find some here there are some little differences in the waveforms but most of them are "interchangeable" but not the same.. the tg33 is more a sy22 expander and the sy versions are 8times multitimbral and provide only one stereo out pair of jacks but have layer functionality and SY means 16 voices max. some screens and buttons are different. the SY need to send a whole sound while the tg33 accepts single sysex data, too.. the tg33 has 32 voices and is 16times multitimbral. no foot control (..) it's been said the sy-35 has some 16bit samples, but this is unclear.. but .. well "consider" it could be - tg33 and sy22 are still 12bit.. the tg33 looks very strange "desktop", its the expander version but it is not a rack.. it's a desktop synth. the SY's both are keyboards. the sy-22 is the smaller one (half the voice power of the tg-33) and half number of presets (thats sooo important, huh?)
multi synthesis workstations
the YAMAHA EX SERIES
EX5 and EX7 are no FM synthesizers, but they are a mixture of AN (analog modeling / virtual analog like an1x), VL (like the VL plugin hardware or the vl70m reduced..), FDSP (some resonator / pwm simulating by feedbacked delays..), and AWM (rom samples) quite flexible synths, the ex5 is the more powerful one.. the ex7 is a bit "slimed down" ex5 ;) (processor is less powerful here)..
the new CS Series (not to be confused with the CS analogue series)
the Cs1X , CS2X and CS6X are not analogue, they are rom based synthesizers, the cs6x has also plugins slots for yamahas "plug in hardware" like VL, AN, Piano etc. and of course a DX module that is exacly a DX7!! - basically they have a standard VA-structure but no FM,ringmod etc.. the cs1x and cs2x are almost yamahas answer to techno of the 90ies and offered ok-filters and standard rompler synths - same look like the an1x which is VA (virtual analogue)... but also offers a nice FM section but cannot be compared to yamahas 4,6 or 6OP FM synthesizers .. there are also some other synths that accept the yamaha hard plugins expecially the DX module.. like some MU sound modules and motif series..
MOTIF / MO Series
is yamahas answer to rolands fantom and fantom X, the Motif ES can also can handle your own samples, it's structure is much like the fantom but does not provide the "structures" and ringmod combinations...
Yamaha VL1 + VP1
physical modeling Synth.. V2.0 .. you can make very special sounds with this!.. mono- / duophon the Yamaha VL1 - physical modelling for the masses. still quite rare: there are 3 versions:
-the vl1 - duophonic (has 2 "elements" = sound enignes) or the racked vl1m -the vl7 - monophonic
the downsized version vl70m or the vl module that can be found in some yamaha mu modules and as a module to slot into their bigger newer workstations.
the vl70m is NOT the same as the vl1/7 series and also sounds "weaker". and the FX are also downsized.